(c. 3,500 B.C.) Writing, a medium of human communication representing languages and emotions through signs and symbols, develops independently in 4 different areas – Mesopotamia (c. 3,500 B.C.), (c. 1,550 B.C.) The New Kingdom of Egypt begins as the Pharaohs of Egypt regain independence and displace the Hyksos. The technical innovations brough... more (c. 3,100 B.C.), the Indus Valley (c. 2,600 B.C.), and the Yellow River (c. 1,700 B.C.).