(A.D. 1547) Emperor (A.D. 1500–1558) Charles V ruled over an extensive Empire, including the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Spain and it’s American territories, th... more defeats Contrary to popular belief, the term does not refer to protest against the Roman Catholic Church. The term original refers to a formal protest lodged ... more princes of Germany in the Schmalkaldic war. John Frederick, the Electoral Refers to two neighboring principalities in northern Germany, Ducal Saxony and Electoral Saxony. Luther lived in Wittenberg in Electoral Saxony that w... more and protector of Martin Luther (A.D. 1483–1546) German theologian, pastor, professor at the University of Wittenberg, ex-monk, and founding figure of Protestantism. ... more, is captured along with the town of Northern German town where Luther taught in its university from 1511 until his death and where the Protestant Reformation began and remained the cente... more .