(c. A.D. 810–893) Photius I was an Ecumenical Patriarch of Was established in A.D. 324 by Emperor Constantine as the Eastern capital of the Roman Empire. The city was built over the much smaller ancient city o... more, head of the Eastern Orthodox Churches. His elevation was the basis for a schism between the Eastern and Western Churches. Photius was crucial in compiling a collection of From the Greek word ecclesia, meaning church or congregation and is used to refer to both separate Christian congregations and to the whole body of Ch... more Is a fundamental concept of Luthernism and is contrasted by Luther with the Gospel. For Luther, the law consists of God’s commands regarding how one... more used in the East, similar to Gratian (A.D. 359–383) was a Roman Emperor who enjoyed early success, but later disregarded his duties, leading to a revolt by the army and his assa... more in the West.