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HISTORY of Christian Theology

(A.D. 1002–1054) Pope Leo IX was born to a noble family in the Alsace region of what was then part of the Holy Roman Empire. He played an instrumental role in the Great Schism of 1054 between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. The Eastern Church objected to the Western Church’s addition of the words “and the son” to the phrase, “The Holy Spirit, who proceeds from the Father” in the Nicene Creed. Leo sent a delegation to Constantinople that laid a declaration of the Eastern Patriarch’s excommunication on the altar of the church of Hagia Sophia while he was officiating the mass. The offence was irreparable as evidenced by the Eastern Church excommunication of the Pope’s emissaries. Pope Leo IX also struggled with the consequences of a Norman conquests in southern Italy and is regarded as the greatest German Pope during the Middle Ages.

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