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HISTORY of Christian Theology

A term referring to how Christ’s suffering and death on the cross expiates sin and reconciles humans with God. There are various theories regarding how the atonement of Christ functions, including, ransom theory, substitutional or satisfaction theory, the moral influence theory, the recaptitulation theory, and the eternal covenant theory. The original Hebrew word, kaphar, that is used 90% of the time for the word atonement in the Old Testament means “to cover.”

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