(550 B.C.) The Achaemenid Empire (aka the First Persian Empire) begins as Cyrus the Great rebels against and destroys the Medes, eventually controlling a vast geographical area, from Macedonia, refers to the Roman providences in what is now Turkey. Minor, Cyprus, (c. 1,550 B.C.) The New Kingdom of Egypt begins as the Pharaohs of Egypt regain independence and displace the Hyksos. The technical innovations brough... and Libya in the west to the Hindu Kush and western Indus Basin in the east.